Electron Beam Lithography

Lithography & Patterning (Electron and ion beam lithography)

A typical electron beam lithography tool is a vector-scan direct-write tool with a Gaussian shaped beam. The electrons are accelerated (typically 30 keV to 100 keV, but also lower, depending on the application) and the beam scanning is controlled by special beam-deflection systems. The beam is directed to a position in the main deflection field (typically between 100 μm² to 1 mm²), where a pattern is written by stepping around the electron beam.  For larger patterns, the pattern is divided into main field blocks, which are completely exposed one-by-one after mechanically moving the substrate to the right position. A laser interferometer can often measure the actual stage position, and this signal is fed back to the deflection system with a resolution even below a nanometer.

Electron-beam spot sizes can be focused to sub-10 nm in diameter. At the same time, a wide range of beam currents is available (depending on the tool, typically a few pA to more than 300 nA). This enables high-throughput as well as high-resolution exposures with a high degree of versatility. In addition, with high accelerating voltages, thick layers of e-beam resists can be exposed, with small forward electron scattering. With electron-beam lithography, aligning multiple levels of lithography with very high overlay precision is possible, with manual or automatic detection of alignment markers. Most systems can handle full wafers, mask blanks, and custom shaped samples and provide automatic laser focusing for height measurement. Users can implement or supply their designs in most standard formats, while specialized software is usually available for pattern preparation and proximity effect correction. Typical high resolution electron-beam resists are, among others, PMMA (positive tone) and HSQ (negative tone).

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          provided at NFFA-Europe laboratories by:
CNR-IOM (TS)
Italy
C2N-CNRS
France
CSIC-CNM
Spain
CSIC-ICMAB
Spain
FORTH
Greece
ICN2
Spain
INL
Portugal
KIT
Germany
LUND + MAX IV
Sweden
PSI
Switzerland
EURONANOLAB
France
INESC-MN
Portugal
CNR-IOM (TS)
Italy
EBL - LEO-ZEISS Cross-Beam 1540 XB system
High resolution SEM with focused ion beam column (FIB) and gas inlet system (GIS)
Electron Beam and Ga ion beam
Voltage range of the electron beam is from 0.7-30kV Probe current (10pA - 5nA) with high stability (0.2%/h)
Ultimate resolution of 1 nanometer Max writing field 1mm Stitching precision 1micron
Blanker frequency: 1MHz
The maximum host sample is 4" wafer The write filed size of the single EBL exposure is 1mm2
ELPHY Quantum Plus is lithography hardware attachment: Hierarchical fully integrated GDSII layout editor/viewer, exposure parameter adjustment and calculation, 300 kHz maximum writing speed, digital image acquisition
PSI
Switzerland
EBL - Vistec/Raith EBPG 5000+ ES system @ Laboratory for Micro- and Nanotechnology
Electron Beam Lithography
Electron gun
100keV accelerating energy, 200pA-200nA beam currents
<5nm spot size
512x512 μm2 max main field, 50 MHz max stepping frequency, overlay precision <20nm for 100x100 μm2 field
Any chip size, wafers up to 150mm and 5" x 5" mask blanks, automatic 10-position air-lock
Spin-coating, metal evaporation, etc.
Interferometric stage
UHV
LayoutBEAMER software for pattern generation/proximity effect correction, L-Edit CAD tool for pattern design/import
ICN2
Spain
Inspect F50 with Raith Elphy Plus
Ebeam lithography on small substrates
TFE 30KeV
from 1kV up to 30kV
lithography lateral resolution down to 50nm.
small substrates, up to 20x20mm.
standard SEM detector
base pressure around 2e-5mTorr
No
CNR-IOM (TS)
Italy
ZEISS SIGMA 300 + RAITH ELPHI QUATUM
ELECTRON BEAM LITHOGRAPHY - NANOPATTERNING
1-30 Kev
up to 4" exposure possible
no limits
LUND + MAX IV
Sweden
EBL - Raith Voyager
50kV High speed EBL mainly for wafer level exposure
Acceleration Voltages: 50 kV. Maximum probe current: 40nA, Pattern generator speed: 50MHz
Minimum resolution: 10 nm
6" Max sample size. Max sample thickness: 3 mm
available
EURONANOLAB
France
EBL at EURONANOLAB - IEMN
EURONANOLAB
France
EBL at EURONANOLAB - PoliFAB
EURONANOLAB
France
EBL at EURONANOLAB - UT