Scanning Electron Microscopy

Structural & Morphology Characterization (Electron and ion beam technologies)

In a SEM, a beam is scanned over the sample surface in a raster pattern while a signal from secondary electrons (SE) or Back-scattered electrons (BSE) is recorded by specific electron detectors. The electron beam, which typically has an energy ranging from a few hundred eV up to 40 keV, is focused to a spot of about 0.4 nm to 5 nm in diameter. Latest generation SEMs indeed can achieve a resolution of 0.4 nm at 30 kV and 0.9 nm at 1 kV.

Beyond the ability to image a comparatively large area of the specimen, SEM can be equipped with a variety of analytical techniques for measuring the composition, crystallographic phase distribution and local texture of the specimen. Chemical composition analysis can be performed by Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) which relies on the generation of an X-ray spectrum from the entire scan area of the SEM. An EDS detector mounted in the SEM chamber collects and separates the characteristic X-rays of different elements into an energy spectrum and EDS system software is used to analyse the energy spectrum in order to determine the abundance of specific elements. EDS can be used to find the chemical composition of materials down to a spot size of a few microns and to create element composition maps over a much broader raster area.

An SEM complemented with a (FIB) focused ion beam permits in addition an in-depth analysis by creating a cross-section cut that is subsequently analysed using the electron beam and the SEM/EDS detectors (slice&view). In a similar way, a 3D tomography can be generated by an iterative ion beam milling and electron beam imaging. Furthermore, the ion beam permits to cut a thin lamella out of a sample surface that could be taken out by a micro-manipulator and analysed with the electron beam in transmission using a so called STEM (scanning transmission electron microscope) detector.

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          provided at NFFA-Europe laboratories by:
CNR-IOM (TS)
Italy
CNR-DSCTM
Italy
CEA/LETI
France
C2N-CNRS
France
CSIC-CNM
Spain
CSIC-ICMAB
Spain
FORTH
Greece
ICN2
Spain
INL
Portugal
JRC - ISPRA
Italy
LUND + MAX IV
Sweden
PSI
Switzerland
UAB
Spain
INESC-MN
Portugal
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          provided by:
EURONANOLAB
France
CNR-IOM (TS)
Italy
SEM-EDX
Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis
High brightness field-emission gun (FEG)
Beam voltage: 0.02- 30kV Beam current: Configuration 1: 4pA -20nA/Configuration 2:12 pA – 100nA
High efficiency in-lens detector Everhart-Thornley Secondary Electron Detector Cap mounted AsB detector CCD-camera with IR illumination
1.0 nm at 15kV 1.9 nm at 1kV
5-Axes Motorised Eucentric Specimen Stage: X = 130 mm, Y = 130 mm, Z = 50 mm, T = -3 - +70°, R = 360° (continuous) 6-Axes Eucentric Stage: X = 100 mm, Y = 100 mm, Z = 42 mm, Z’ = 13 mm, T = -4 to 70°, R = 360° (continuous)
STEM detector (scanning transmission electron microscopy) SDD EDX system for chemical micro-analysis with 10 mm2 active area, energy resolution for Mn Kα: 129 eV or better, peak shift and resolution change <1 eV
CNR-IOM (TS)
Italy
FIB-SEM
Focused Ion Beam-Scanning Electron Microscopy
Ga focused ion beam (FIB) High brightness field-emission gun (FEG)
Beam voltage: 30 KeV (FIB); 0.7-30kV Current voltage: 1pA – 500nA (FIB); 10pA - 5nA with high stability (0.2%/h)
Everhart Thornley In-lens secondary electron
Pattern generator for electron beam and Ga ion beam lithography EDX system for chemical micro-analysis with 10 mm2 active area, energy resolution Mn Kα: 150 eV or better
CEA/LETI
France
Hitachi H5500 High resolution SEM
SEM
Cold Field Emission Gun
High tension from 0.5 to 30 kV
Secondary and backscattered electron detectors STEM detector
0.4 nm at 30 kV 1.6 nm at 1 keV
Inlens pole piece
Small samples (5mm)
DESY + PETRA III
Germany
SEM @ DESY NanoLab
Imaging of surfaces in reflection mode, in scanning mode and scanning transmission microscopy (STEM), elemental analysis by EDX (point and line analysis, mappings)
High resolution field emission instrument Nova Nano SEM 450 (FEI)
Acceleration Voltage: 200 V - 30 kV Deceleration mode Current up to 200 nA EDX: 127 eV @ MnKα
SE Everhart-Thornley detector (ETD) Low vacuum BE detector High resolution through-lens detector tunable for SE and BE mode High resolution STEM detector for analysis of membranes and thin films in transmission X-Max 150 EDS silicon drift detector for elemental analysis, energy resolution 127 eV @ MnKα (Oxford) IR-CCD camera to track the sample position
Lateral resolution: 1.0 nm at 15 kV 1.4 nm at 1 kV 0.8 nm at 30 kV (STEM)
Possible translation of sample stage in x/y: 110 x 110 mm Navigation and pattering software Sample tilt -15° to +74°
Gas injection system for electron beam induced deposition (EBID) with Pt precursor material to write Pt based markers on sample surfaces, as e.g., markers for Nanopositioning to be developed within Joint research action 5 "Advanced Nano-object Transfer and Positioning"
All materials Sample sizes 100 mm x 100 mm x 50 mm (length x width x height) Ambient temperature
10-5 mbar typical operating pressure
Cross-section thickness measurement software
Plasma cleaning
ICN2
Spain
SEM – FEI Quanta 650 FEG ESEM
High resolution surface imaging, low vacuum imaging, environmental SEM capabilities and chemical composition analysis
Schottky field emission gun
Beam voltage: 200V to 30kV Beam current: 1.6pA to 200nA
Secondary electrons (SE) Backscattered electrons (BSE) Transmitted electrons (STEM) Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX)
0.8 nm @ 30kV (STEM) 1.0 nm @ 30kV (SE) 3.0 nm @ 1kV (SE)
Up to 8” diameter flat samples
High vacuum: 10-4Pa Low vacuum: 10Pa – 130Pa Environmental mode: 10Pa – 4000Pa
Environmental mode: sample cooling (down to -25ºC), heating (up to 1000ºC) and wet samples imaging
ICN2
Spain
SEM – FEI Magellan 400L XHRSEM
Extreme high resolution surface imaging
Schottky field emission gun with monochromator (UniColore electron source)
Beam voltage: 50V to 30kV Beam current: 1.6pA to 26nA
Secondary electrons (SE) Backscattered electrons (BSE) Transmitted electrons (STEM)
0.8 nm @ 30kV (STEM) 0.8 nm @ 15kV (SE) 1.5 nm @ 200V (SE)
In-situ plasma cleaner
Up to 4” diameter flat samples
High vacuum: 10-4Pa
High resolution imaging of insulating samples (no coating needed)
LUND + MAX IV
Sweden
SEM - LEO 1560
SEM inspection
Standard Schottky type filament
Beam voltage: 0.5-30kV
ET and through the lens type detectors
1.3nm at 20kV
150mm travel of stage
From stubs up to 6” wafers
High Vacuum only: E-6 mbar
LUND + MAX IV
Sweden
Zeiss Gemini SEM 500
Surface imaging and elemental analysis
Schottky field emission gun
Secondary electron and backscatter electron detectors, plus EDS detector
A few nm for imaging, a few um for EDS, depends on sample
x, y, z, rotation and tilt of sample
Solid sample, max 2" wafer or smaller pieces Other SEMs available for larger samples
High Vacuum only: E-6 mbar
No
LUND + MAX IV
Sweden
JEOL JSM-6700F SEM
Imaging and analysis at the sub-micron-level via SEM and EDXS
Field emission gun
Up to 30kV accelerating voltage
Back scattered electron detector Secondary electron detector EDXS detection on 50mm SSD from Oxford Instruments
Image resolution is sub-10nm
SEM sample can be moved plus/minus 10mm in X and Y Working distances variable from around 3 to 15mm
Standard SEM samples
Standard vacuum in the microscope column
Sputter coating for insulating specimens
Spectral resolution: 130eV approx. on EDXS
UAB
Spain
SEM – Zeiss Merlin
SEM analysis
Field Emission Gun
Beam voltage: from 0.5 kV to 30 kV Beam current: from 20 pA to 40 nA
Secondary Electrons Detectors: ET and In-lens Backscattered detectors: ASB (Standard detector) and ESB (Energy Selective Backscattered) X-Ray detector EDS Oxford LINCA X-Max Low voltage imaging
0.8nm at 15kV, 1.4nm at 1kV
5 axis motorized eucentric specimen stage
Max size: 130x130x50mm
High vacuum
Pd/Au coating, embedding, polishing Ultramicrotomy
PSI
Switzerland
Zeiss Supra 55 VP @ Laboratory for Micro- and Nanotechnology
SEM
Schottky field emission electron gun, Gemini column
0.1-30keV
In-lens SE detector Chamber Everhart-Thornley detector Retractable backscattered electron detecor (high keV) Variable pressure (low vacuum detector)
1 nm (15keV), 1.7 nm (1keV)
Fully motorized stage,with tilt and rotation, several sample holders (flat, tilted)
Cr sputter coater for charge compensation
6" wafer loadable and partially covered, 4" fully observable, various chip sizes
High vacuum
Chamber camera
JRC - ISPRA
Italy
Scanning Electron microscope
The Dual Beam SEM / FIB is used for nanoscale imaging, material machining and analysis. It combines ultra-high resolution field emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Focused Ion Beam (FIB) etching and deposition.
CNR-DSCTM
Italy
SEM at CNR-DSCTM - ISTEC
INL
Portugal
Quanta 650 ESEM
SEM imaging with a resolution of about 1 nm at 30 kV; Low vacuum/Environmental SEM Imaging of uncoated materials; Cooling/Heating stage (in-situ): -20°C to 1500°C
Field-emission
1–30 kV
SE/BSE/EDXS detectors (Topographical/Structural analysis/Chemical analysis)
SEM imaging resolution is about 1 nm at 30 kV
samples of up to 25 cm in diameter
High vacuum; possible Low vacuum/Environmental SEM