X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

Electronic & Chemical & Magnetic Characterization (Electron spectroscopy)

XPS is a surface spectroscopic technique for quantitative measurements of the elemental composition or stoichiometry and the chemical state of the present elements, like their oxidation state and chemical bonds. Due to the limited free path-length of the excited photoelectrons within the material, XPS is highly surface sensitive, giving chemical and binding energy information from the narrow region close to the surface.

Angular resolved (AR) XPS permits to obtain a depth profile of the elemental composition and chemical state in this narrow surface region, and permits to determine the relative concentrations of surface elements versus buried ones, as, e.g., between head and tail groups of adsorbed alkanes. In combination with sputtering, a larger depth profile is possible. The X-ray spot-size on the sample surface is typically in the range of 5-100 µm.

 

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          provided at NFFA-Europe laboratories by:
CNR-IOM (TS)
Italy
CNR-DSCTM
Italy
CEA/LETI
France
CSIC-ICMM
Spain
ICN2
Spain
INL
Portugal
JRC - ISPRA
Italy
PSI
Switzerland
UMIL
Italy
Uni-NG
Slovenia
EURONANOLAB
France
Uni-Namur
Belgium
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          provided at Large Scale Facilities by:
CNR-IOM (TS)
Italy
KIT
Germany
PSI
Switzerland
SOLEIL
France
ALBA
Spain
CNR-IOM (TS)
Italy
ARPES, XPS - Low Energy APE Beamline @ Elettra Synchrotron
Fermi surface mapping/tomography, Spin-resolved ARPES Shallow core XPS
Elettra synchrotron, Apple II Quasi-Periodic undulator; variable polarization (horizontal, vertical, circular ±); flux on sample @ 10µm slits (ph./s) >2 x 1011; beam size on the sample 150x50 (HxV, µm2)
8-120 eV
VG Scienta DA30 analyzer; spin detection based on very low energy electron diffraction (VLEED) from magnetic surface oxide targets
(E/dE) 30000
T range: 15-300 K
Preparation chamber with 3 heating stages HT (RT- 2000K), WT (170K - 900K), LT (RT - 700K), ion gun, 3 evaporator ports (CF40), gas inlet leak valve, LEED+AES (Omicron SPECTALEED)
MOKE magnetometry Transversal (Hmax=600 Oe), Polar (Hmax=3000 Oe), 3D (Hmax=80 Oe); atomic resolution STM (room temperature, ETH-Z built)
CNR-IOM (TS)
Italy
XPS, UPS - Analytical Laboratory @ IOM
XPS, UPS
Conventional X-ray source (Mg Kα), He discharge lamp Mg Ka hv: 1253.6eV; He discharge lamp (hv: 21.2eV, hv: 40.2eV)
PSP 120mm hemispherical electron energy analyser
~0.8eV for XPS, 50meV for UPS
T range: RT-1500°C
Preparation chamber with CVD and PECVD growth facilities, UHV evaporators, LEED, sputter gun, RGA
CNR-IOM (TS)
Italy
ARPES, XPS - BACH Beamline @ Elettra Synchrotron
Soft x-ray - VUV and resonant angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, resonant photoelectron diffraction, resonant x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, fast photoemission with selectable polarization; core levels, valence band, work function, Auger, surface and bulk band dispersion, empty states in the conduction band, magnetic remanence, strain in thin films, time-resolved spectral evolutions during surface reactions
Elettra synchrotron, Apple II undulators; variable polarization (horizontal, vertical, circular ±); beam size on the sample 350x350 (HxV, µm2); vertical size can be reduced on request; flux on sample @ 10µm slits (best resolution) (ph./s) 2x1012-6x1010
35-1650 eV
VG Scienta R3000 analyzer with slit(s) perpendicular to the scattering plane
(E/dE) 20000-5000
Many samples can be acccomodated in a 25x25mm2 area; T range: 50-1200 K (PID-controlled)
Base pressure: UHV
Both preparation and main chambers with heating stages (e-beam, direct current, PBN), ion gun (VG), 4 evaporator ports (CF40), gas inlet valve (variable leak valve), diamond file scraper, cleaver, evaporators for organic molecules, e-beam evaporators (Omicron) for metals (evaporation at low sample temperatures is also possible), LEED (OciLEED)
XAS is possible in the same chamber; quick XPS acquisition mode (300 ms per spectrum); 4 degree-of-freedom manipulator (rotation axis perpendicular to the scattering plane); possibility to measure at T>300 K; electrical insulation of the sample: possibility to apply a voltage and measure the work function; possibility to superimpose synchrotron beam to external light sources to study photoinduced phenomena
CEA/LETI
France
PHI 5000/VersaProbe II
X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy micro-analysis of thin-films, bulk materials and prototypical devices Depth-profiling of inorganic and organic samples XPS imaging of heterogeneous surfaces at the 10 microns scale
Excitation source: Monochromated X-rays AlKa1 Sputtering source: Monoatomic Ar (0.25-5 keV) Gas Cluster Ion Source (Ar cluster size 500-2500; primary energies 0.5-20 keV)
X-rays: 1486.6 eV
Multi-channel detection (128)
Energy resolution: > 0.5 eV
Chemical state mapping: > 7 µm lateral resolution at > 0.8 eV energy resolution
x, y, z (for positioning the area of interest) θ tilt (for variable-angle XPS)
5x5 mm²
Routine base pressure 8x10-10 mbar, highest allowed pressure 8x10-6 mbar
Hot/cold sample plate for in-situ cooling (liquid nitrogen) or heating (< 900°C)
4-contacts sample holders for in-situ sample biasing
UHV or inert atmosphere transfer is possible to the following tools: ScientaOmicron/NanoESCA, Nano Auger, ToF-SIMS and UHV AFM
DESY + PETRA III
Germany
XPS, XPCS, CDI, Time-resolved SAXS - Coherence Applications P10 Beamline @ Petra III Synchrotron
Coherence Applications, X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (XPCS), Coherent diffractive imaging (CDI), Time-resolved SAXS
DESY + PETRA III
Germany
XPS - Surface Spectroscopy @ Desy NanoLab
X-ray induced Auger spectroscopy, elevated pressure energy analysis
Monochromated X-Ray source FOCUS 500, equipped with differential pumping system
Al K-alpha E =1.487 keV (monochromated)
PHOIBOS 150 2D-DLD Elevated Pressure Energy Analyzer, equipped with differential pumping system
Laser Pointer for sample positioning and alignment
Variable pressure range: 10-10mbar< P <10-4mbar; variable temperature range: 100 K < T < 1000 K (liquid N2 cooling)
Quantitative elemental analysis of surfaces and chemical analysis, flood gun to neutralize charging on non-conducting samples, ion source
DESY + PETRA III
Germany
XPS - P04 Beamline @ Petra III Synchrotron
Variable polarization XUV high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy
Undulator, source brilliance: 1020 ph/s/mm2/mrad2/0.1% bw/100 mA, polarization available: circular (variable linear hor./vert. in future)
Energy range 250 eV – 3 keV (design), 250 eV – 2.2 keV (at present)
Beamline energy resolution <10 meV at 335 eV, <100 meV at 1 keV
Sample type: solid or gas phase (UHV compatible), angle of incidence light – sample: 0 to 90, spot size ON SAMPLE: 5000 μm x 2000 μm to 10 μm x10 μm (h x v), maximum flux ON SAMPLE: > 1015 ph/s @ 1keV
Techniques available: experimental platform (6 user setups available for collaborations)
ICN2
Spain
XPS
XPS, UPS
- SPECS XR 50 M X-ray source for FOCUS 500 X-ray monochromator with Aluminium (1486.74eV) and Silver (2984 eV) - SPECS UVS 300 UV light with monochromator with He I (21.2 eV) and He II (40.8eV)
0-1486eV with Al and 0-2900eV with Ag
SPECS PHOIBIOS-150 analyser
0.5eV with Al and 0.5meV with He I
T down to 80K, heating to 700K
UHV
Preparation chamber equipped with heating stage (e beam), sputter gun, load lock, LEED, gas inlet leak valve and 3 evaporation ports Analysis chamber equipped with flood gun to neutralise charging on non conductive samples
PSI
Switzerland
XPS - Surface Science Lab @ Laboratory for Micro- and Nanotechnology
Sample analysis with micro/spectro-scopy correlation (XPS, UPS, LEED, STM)
SPECS XR 50 M X-ray source for FOCUS 500 X-ray monochromator
Single wavelength, Al Kα, 1486.7 eV
SPECS PHOIBIOS-150 analyser
0.44 eV
4-5 degrees of freedom
50K-500K, typically 1cm2, other possibilities to be discussed
UHV
Load-lock, preparation chamber, flood gun, sputter, depth profiling, UV source, LEED
UPS and STM also available in the same system
SOLEIL
France
Time resolved photoemission XPS, ARPES, XAS, XMCD - Tempo Beamline @ Soleil Synchrotron
Time resolution<50ps
SOLEIL
France
RIXS, HAXPES - Galaxies Beamline @ Soleil Synchrotron
Resolution<100meV
CNR-IOM (TS)
Italy
XPS@ MBE Lab
Microspot Al Kα conventional source
0.9 eV
1 mm