Chemical Vapour Deposition

Growth & Synthesis (Chemical depositions of thin films)

CVD is a thermal process because a certain thermal energy is needed to decompose the gas precursors and reassemble them in the material to be deposited. Processing conditions in a CVD should avoid gas-phase reactions (homogenous deposition) and should favor that the deposited layer is assembled in the substrate as a surface process (heterogeneous deposition). This can be achieved at atmospheric pressure (APCVD) by heavily diluting the active gases. When these gaseous precursors are let to react in a rarefied the process is termed Low Pressure CVD (LPCVD). The partial vacuum avoids gas-phase reactions. The low pressure also favors larger diffusivity of the species so that an LPCVD process can decorate cavities and led to conformal coatings when a topography is present. The conformality is also spurred by the process temperature which favors movement of the species along the surface. Pressures are usually in the millitorr-torr range and temperatures range from 400-800C (depending on the energy needed to decompose the gas precursors). PECVD is a particular form of CVD that takes place in vacuum but in which a plasma is used to assist the decomposition of the gas precursors. This usually allows lowering the temperature of the process to a few hundred centigrade degrees, which can be run on less temperature resistant substrates or without setting off temperature triggered unwanted processes.

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          provided at NFFA-Europe laboratories by:
CNR-IOM (TS)
Italy
CNR-DSCTM
Italy
C2N-CNRS
France
CSIC-CNM
Spain
FORTH
Greece
INL
Portugal
LUND + MAX IV
Sweden
INESC-MN
Portugal
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          provided by:
EURONANOLAB
France
CNR-IOM (TS)
Italy
CVD and PECVD @ Analytical Laboratory
Growth of carbon-based materials
Process gases: C2H2, CH4, O2, H2, inert gasses (N2, Ar, …) - ECR reactor, COPRA Flux: 1-100sccm
Sample temperature: RT-1500°C
Sample dimension: 1.2mm x 0.6 mm Sample holder compatible with several other CNR-IOM laboratories (including STM, IPES, BACH beamline)
UHV system (base pressure:~10-10mbar)
The CVD system is directly connected to the following instrumentation, for in situ analysis: - XPS and UPS analysis chamber, equipped with a conventional X-ray source Mg Ka, He discharge lamp, hemispherical electron energy analyser (120 mm by PSP) - low energy electron diffraction (LEED) - supersonic cluster source (AMPHIRO) - UHV evaporators - residual gas analyser - sputter-gun
CSIC-CNM
Spain
Semi Engineering LPCVDs
Deposition of LPCVD high quality layers of silicon nitride and polysilicon
Quartz tubes and heaters for LPCVD thermal processes up to 800ºC Precursors: high purity gases: Silane, DCS, NH3 and N2
Si3N4 deposition around 800ºC and polysilicon deposition between 550ºC - 650ºC
Deposited film thicknesses between 30nm-3 mm for polysilicon and between 30nm-600nm for nitride
Manual placing in vertical position in a quartz carrier onto an automatic boat loader
Wafers up to 4” Isolated chips allowed with restrictions Substrates with metals or polymers NOT allowed
10 mTorr range base pressure High temperature up to 600ºC/800ºC Clean room class 100 ambient
Semi-amorphous polySi deposition for microsystems applications
RTA or diffusion furnaces for post-deposition annealing and/or doping Optical microscope, reflectometer and ellipsometer for film thickness measurement, confocal microscope
CSIC-CNM
Spain
PECVD AMAT P5000 and Oxford Plasmalab800
Plasma enhanced deposition of SiNx, SiOx and amorphous Si Passivation
Reaction chambers under vacuum with plasma RF source (13,56MHz) and LF source (Plasmalab: 50-460KHz) for PECVD process below 400ºC Precursors: Silane, NH3, N2O, H2, TEOS, TMPi, TMB, O2 and N2
RF power up to 1,2 kW (Amat)/600W(Plasmalab) LF power up to 500W(Plasmalab)
Deposited film thicknesses between 30 nm -3 mm for SiOx, between 30 nm -1.5 mm for SiNx and between 30 nm -300 nm for a-Si
Automatic wafer cassette loading Plasmalab: manual positioning on the bedplate All in horizontal position
Samples and wafers up to 6” Substrates with polymers NOT allowed AMAT: substrates with CMOS contaminant metals (alkalines or noble metals) NOT allowed
10 mTorr - 5 Torr range pressure Temperature range: 200ºC – 430ºC
TEOS based SiOx doped with B and P for BPSG or PSG deposition
RTA or diffusion furnaces for post-deposition annealing Optical microscope, reflectometer and ellipsometer for film thickness measurement, confocal microscope
LUND + MAX IV
Sweden
PECVD - MicroSys 200 (706)
Plasma enhanced deposition of SiNx, SiOx, Si
Process gases Ar, SiH4, NH3, N2, O2, NF3, N2O
Deposition at 20-300° C
Deposited film thicknesses typically 20-300nm
Up to 4” wafer
Turbomolecular pumping
ICP-plasma