X-Ray Diffraction

Structural & Morphology Characterization (X-ray analysis)

XRD provides non-destructive information on the structural order of a material.

When the X-ray wavelength is of the order of the crystal lattice spacing, at large scattering angles XRD permits to identify different crystal phases in a sample and to quantify lattice distances and crystalline volume fractions.

At low angles of incidence, the X-rays are reflected at the surface or interface, and from the resulting X-ray reflectometry data the surface roughness of a single crystal and the thickness of a deposition layer can be obtained.

At an angle of incidence below the critical angle XRD is highly surface sensitive.

              

@
          provided at NFFA-Europe laboratories by:
CNR-IOM (TS)
Italy
CNR-DSCTM
Italy
CEA/LETI
France
C2N-CNRS
France
CSIC-ICMAB
Spain
FORTH
Greece
ICN2
Spain
JRC - ISPRA
Italy
KIT
Germany
LUND + MAX IV
Sweden
EURONANOLAB
France
INESC-MN
Portugal
@
          provided at Large Scale Facilities by:
PSI
Switzerland
SOLEIL
France
ALBA
Spain
CNR-IOM (TS)
Italy
Four-circle X-ray diffractometer PanalyticalX'pert
Analysis of a wide range of materials, from micrometer powders to thin films and/or nano-engineered heterostructures
Cu Kα (1.5405 Å) Interchangeable fixed slits and one Soller slit
Cu Kα (1.5405 Å)
Sealed proportional counter Fixed slit plus programmable receiving slit Graphite analyser
Open Eulerian cradle: - incidence angle ± 92˚ - azimuth angle 2 x 360˚ - x,y in plane translation: 100 x 100 mm - z vertical translation minimum step 1 µm
CEA/LETI
France
Hibrix
X-ray diffraction (phase, stress, texture analysis) of thin films and multilayers materials X-ray reflectivity (thickness, electronic density, roughness) of thin films and mutilayers X-ray fluorescence (chemical analysis) Non ambient condition (heating up to 1100°C under different atmospheres)
X-ray microsource (50 to 150 micrometers spot size) 50 W with parallel and focusing primary optics (mirrors)
Copper source (8 keV)
2D detector (60x60 mm², curved detector (120° aperture / radius 250 mm), fluorescence detector and scintillator
Kα1-2 spectral lines 200 eV for fluorescence
Spot size at sample position (50 to 150 ums)
100 mm substrate size or small coupons
In situ (temperature) measurements up to 1100°C under primary vacuum or under air, nitrogen, argon, helium atmosphere (1 bar)
CSIC-ICMAB
Spain
XRD – D8 Discover
XRD – D8 Discover
X-ray Source: Cu anode long fine focus ceramic X-ray tube; running conditions for the X-Ray tube: 40 kV and 40 mA
CSIC-ICMAB
Spain
XRD – D8 Advance
Texture and microdiffraction measurements
X-ray Source: Cu anode long fine focus ceramic X-ray tube; running conditions for the X-Ray tube: 40 kV and 40 mA
Two-dimensional (2-D) detector –Vantec 500 (window of 140 mm diameter)
Centric Eulerian cradle
Powder, thin films or bulk samples
Diferent size collimators (0.1, 0.3 and 0.5mm)
CSIC-ICMAB
Spain
XRD – Siemens D5000
Powder diffraction Out-of-plane and rocking curve measurements of thin films
X-ray Source: Cu anode long fine focus ceramic X-ray tube, running conditions for the X-Ray tube: 45 kV and 35 mA
Scintillation counter
Bragg-Brentano geometry
Powder, thin films or bulk samples (no more than 2cmx2cm)
PSI
Switzerland
XRD - MS Beamline @ Swiss Light Source Synchrotron
The Material Science (MS) beamline serves two endstations for surface diffraction and powder diffraction
Short-period (14 mm) in-vacuum, cryogenically cooled, permanent magnet undulator, flux at 10eV: 2.5x1013 ph/s/0.4 A, focused spot size 130µm x 40µm (1:1 focusing)
5 - 38 keV
PILATUS II novel photon-counting 2-D pixel detector, 486 x 195 pixels, each pixel subtending 0.0086o x 0.0086o, high SNR due to its zero electronic background noise, excellent point spread function; 2+3-circle surface diffractometer from Micro-Controle Newport
Horizontal or vertical sample positioning, hexapod for sample positioning and aligning
UHV, cryo-chamber
Powder diffraction endstation is also available
Choice of filters
KIT
Germany
STOE STADI Vari
Single Crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD)
Mo-Kalpha and Cu-Kalpha Microfocus tube (50 kV, 1 mA)
8.0 keV (Cu) 17.5 keV (Mo)
Single Photon Detector Dectris Pilatus 300K
omega scan
4.5 - 36 keV
5.81 mm-1
single crystal (min size 50 µm) T 150 - 300 K
no
LUND + MAX IV
Sweden
XRD - Bruker D8 Discover
Crystalline structure, 2T/T, GIXRD, rocking curve and RSM scan
Cu K-alpha radiation, 1.6 kW, Goebel mirror and beam compressor
X-ray wavelength: 1.5406 Å
PathFinder point detector (variable slit and three bounce Ge(220) crystal)
Eulerian cradle, x, y, z, rotation and tilt of sample
Line focus, beam dimensions: roughly 10 x 0.2 mm
Solid sample, max 4" wafer or smaller pieces, max thickness is 1 mm
Ambient
No
ICN2
Spain
Malvern PANalytical X’pert Pro MPD (Material Powder Diffractometer)
MPD (Materials Powder Diffractometer) is suitable for the analysis of polycrystalline samples at room temperature. This diffractometer has a vertical theta-theta goniometer (240 mm radius), where the sample stage is fixed and does not rotate around omega axis as in omega-2theta diffractometers. Two different configurations are available: Bragg-Brentano and Transmission configuration. Applications: Identification of crystalline phases in organic and inorganic compounds, Quantitative phase analysis in organic and inorganic compounds, Particle size determination.
X-ray source: Cu Κα radiation (Κα = 1.54187 Å)
The detector used is an X’Celerator which is an ultra-fast X-ray detector based on Real Time Multiple Strip (RTMS) technology
Polycrystalline samples at room temperature (Powder, bulk, liquid)
Air and Room temperature experiments
Available capillary measurements for air-sensitive samples, liquids, or small quantities of powder.
ICN2
Spain
Malvern PANalytical X’pert Pro MRD (Material Research Diffractometer)
The MRD (Materials Research Diffractometer) is suitable for the structural characterization in thin-films materials at room and high temperature. This diffractometer has a horizontal ω-2θ goniometer (320 mm radius) in a four-circle geometry and it works with a ceramic X-ray tube with Κα anode (λ=1.540 Å). This diffractometer is equipped with different incident and diffracted optics which can be interchanged depending on the application required (i.e. a parabolic mirror, a hybrid monochromator, a Ge(440) four-crystal monochromator, a parallel plate collimator, and a polycapillary lens). Applications: 1) Crystal structure analysis: phase identification, determination of cell parameters, domain orientation and stress on thin films. 2) θ-2θ measurements (normal and high resolution) in epitaxial and polycrystalline thin-films. 3) X-ray Reflectivity measurements for estimation of thickness and roughness. 4) Rocking curves measurements. 5) Reciprocal Space Mappings. 6) Texture analysis (Phi and pole figures measurements) 7) Grazing incidence measurements.
X-ray source: Cu Κα radiation (Κα = 1.54187 Å)
PIXCel detector (2D solid state detector 256x256 pixels works as 1D detector). Ideal for fast reciprocal space mapping.
From a few mm2 up to 3” diameter flat samples.