X-Ray Diffraction

Structural & Morphology Characterization (X-ray analysis)

XRD provides non-destructive information on the structural order of a material.

When the X-ray wavelength is of the order of the crystal lattice spacing, at large scattering angles XRD permits to identify different crystal phases in a sample and to quantify lattice distances and crystalline volume fractions.

At low angles of incidence, the X-rays are reflected at the surface or interface, and from the resulting X-ray reflectometry data the surface roughness of a single crystal and the thickness of a deposition layer can be obtained.

At an angle of incidence below the critical angle XRD is highly surface sensitive.

              

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          provided at NFFA-Europe laboratories by:
CNR-IOM (TS)
Italy
CNR-DSCTM
Italy
CEA/LETI
France
C2N-CNRS
France
CSIC-ICMAB
Spain
FORTH
Greece
ICN2
Spain
JRC - ISPRA
Italy
KIT
Germany
LUND + MAX IV
Sweden
EURONANOLAB
France
INESC-MN
Portugal
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          provided at Large Scale Facilities by:
PSI
Switzerland
SOLEIL
France
ALBA
Spain
CNR-IOM (TS)
Italy
Four-circle X-ray diffractometer PanalyticalX'pert
Analysis of a wide range of materials, from micrometer powders to thin films and/or nano-engineered heterostructures
Cu Kα (1.5405 Å) Interchangeable fixed slits and one Soller slit
Cu Kα (1.5405 Å)
Sealed proportional counter Fixed slit plus programmable receiving slit Graphite analyser
Open Eulerian cradle: - incidence angle ± 92˚ - azimuth angle 2 x 360˚ - x,y in plane translation: 100 x 100 mm - z vertical translation minimum step 1 µm
CEA/LETI
France
Hibrix
X-ray diffraction (phase, stress, texture analysis) of thin films and multilayers materials X-ray reflectivity (thickness, electronic density, roughness) of thin films and mutilayers X-ray fluorescence (chemical analysis) Non ambient condition (heating up to 1100°C under different atmospheres)
X-ray microsource (50 to 150 micrometers spot size) 50 W with parallel and focusing primary optics (mirrors)
Copper source (8 keV)
2D detector (60x60 mm², curved detector (120° aperture / radius 250 mm), fluorescence detector and scintillator
Kα1-2 spectral lines 200 eV for fluorescence
Spot size at sample position (50 to 150 ums)
100 mm substrate size or small coupons
In situ (temperature) measurements up to 1100°C under primary vacuum or under air, nitrogen, argon, helium atmosphere (1 bar)
CSIC-ICMAB
Spain
XRD – D8 Discover
XRD – D8 Discover
X-ray Source: Cu anode long fine focus ceramic X-ray tube; running conditions for the X-Ray tube: 40 kV and 40 mA
CSIC-ICMAB
Spain
XRD – D8 Advance
Texture and microdiffraction measurements
X-ray Source: Cu anode long fine focus ceramic X-ray tube; running conditions for the X-Ray tube: 40 kV and 40 mA
Two-dimensional (2-D) detector –Vantec 500 (window of 140 mm diameter)
Centric Eulerian cradle
Powder, thin films or bulk samples
Diferent size collimators (0.1, 0.3 and 0.5mm)
CSIC-ICMAB
Spain
XRD – Siemens D5000
Powder diffraction Out-of-plane and rocking curve measurements of thin films
X-ray Source: Cu anode long fine focus ceramic X-ray tube, running conditions for the X-Ray tube: 45 kV and 35 mA
Scintillation counter
Bragg-Brentano geometry
Powder, thin films or bulk samples (no more than 2cmx2cm)
PSI
Switzerland
XRD - MS Beamline @ Swiss Light Source Synchrotron
The Material Science (MS) beamline serves two endstations for surface diffraction and powder diffraction
Short-period (14 mm) in-vacuum, cryogenically cooled, permanent magnet undulator, flux at 10eV: 2.5x1013 ph/s/0.4 A, focused spot size 130µm x 40µm (1:1 focusing)
5 - 38 keV
PILATUS II novel photon-counting 2-D pixel detector, 486 x 195 pixels, each pixel subtending 0.0086o x 0.0086o, high SNR due to its zero electronic background noise, excellent point spread function; 2+3-circle surface diffractometer from Micro-Controle Newport
Horizontal or vertical sample positioning, hexapod for sample positioning and aligning
UHV, cryo-chamber
Choice of filters
Powder diffraction endstation is also available