Scanning probe lithography (SPL) methods like dip-pen nanolithography (DPN), polymer pen lithography (PPL), microcontactspotting (µCS) and FluidFM have all unique strengths in terms of resolution, obtainable throughput and patterning speed. Generally, SPL methods utilize the excellent control over positioning and movement of a tip (the probe) or sample stage as offered by atomic force microscopy (AFM) based technologies for highly localized deposition of “inks” (chemical compounds or carrier fluids with functional components). They work additive, maskless and exhibit broad compatibility with delicate chemical and biological inks, offer mild process parameters and are capable of multiplexing (i.e. deposition of different compounds within a desired micropattern). µCS and DPN in particular have shown great potential for low-volume liquid deposition in the femto- and attoliter regime for chemical surface functionalization. SPL methods can functionalize surfaces over a wide range of resolutions and feature sizes. They can also be used for targeted functionalization of devices and pre-existing structures, e.g. for integration into microfluidics or sensor functionalization, or do in-situ chemical synthesis.