CVD
Chemical Vapour Deposition

Growth & Synthesis Installation 2
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CVD is a thermal process because a certain thermal energy is needed to decompose the gas precursors and reassemble them in the material to be deposited. Processing conditions in a CVD should avoid gas-phase reactions (homogenous deposition) and should favor that the deposited layer is assembled in the substrate as a surface process (heterogeneous deposition). This can be achieved at atmospheric pressure (APCVD) by heavily diluting the active gases. When these gaseous precursors are let to react in a rarefied the process is termed Low Pressure CVD (LPCVD). The partial vacuum avoids gas-phase reactions. The low pressure also favors larger diffusivity of the species so that an LPCVD process can decorate cavities and led to conformal coatings when a topography is present. The conformality is also spurred by the process temperature which favors movement of the species along the surface. Pressures are usually in the millitorr-torr range and temperatures range from 400-800C (depending on the energy needed to decompose the gas precursors). PECVD is a particular form of CVD that takes place in vacuum but in which a plasma is used to assist the decomposition of the gas precursors. This usually allows lowering the temperature of the process to a few hundred centigrade degrees, which can be run on less temperature resistant substrates or without setting off temperature triggered unwanted processes.

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          provided at NFFA-Europe laboratories by:
Italy
France
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
LU
Sweden

PECVD - MicroSys 200 (706)

Plasma enhanced deposition of SiNx, SiOx, Si

Process gases Ar, SiH4, NH3, N2, O2, NF3, N2O

Deposition at 20-300° C

Deposited film thicknesses typically 20-300nm

Up to 4” wafer

Turbomolecular pumping

ICP-plasma

PSI
Switzerland

LPCVD and PECVD @ Laboratory for Micro- and Nanotechnology

LPCVD: High quality Si3N4 films

PECVD: SiO2, Si3N4, amorphous Si deposition

LPCVD furnace (SiH2Cl2+NH3)/PECVD in Oxford plasmalab 80 plus system

LPCVD: High temperature furnace @ 780°C

PECVD: Plasma vacuum chamber, Tmax=400°C

LPCVD: Up to 4" wafers

PECVD: 4" wafers or chips

CNR-IOM
Italy

CVD and PECVD @ Analytical Laboratory

Growth of carbon-based materials

Process gases: C2H2, CH4, O2, H2, inert gasses (N2, Ar, …) - ECR reactor, COPRA

Flux: 1-100sccm

Sample temperature: RT-1500°C

Sample dimension: 1.2mm x 0.6 mm

Sample holder compatible with several other CNR-IOM laboratories (including STM, IPES, BACH beamline)

UHV system (base pressure:~10-10mbar)

The CVD system is directly connected to the following instrumentation, for in situ analysis:
- XPS and UPS analysis chamber, equipped with a conventional X-ray source Mg Ka, He discharge lamp, hemispherical electron energy analyser (120 mm by PSP)
- low energy electron diffraction (LEED)
- supersonic cluster source (AMPHIRO)
- UHV evaporators
- residual gas analyser
- sputter-gun