X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

Characterisation Installation 5
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XPS is a surface spectroscopic technique for quantitative measurements of the elemental composition or stoichiometry and the chemical state of the present elements, like their oxidation state and chemical bonds. Due to the limited free path-length of the excited photoelectrons within the material, XPS is highly surface sensitive, giving chemical and binding energy information from the a narrow region close to the surface.

Angular resolved (AR) XPS permits to obtain a depth profile of the elemental composition and chemical state in this narrow surface region, and permits to determine the relative concentrations of surface elements versus buried ones, as, e.g., between head and tail groups of adsorbed alkanes. In combination with sputtering, a larger depth profile is possible. The X-ray spot-size on the sample surface is typically in the range of 5-100 µm.


          provided at NFFA-Europe laboratories by:
          provided at Large Scale Facilities by:

ARPES, XPS - Low Energy APE Beamline @ Elettra Synchrotron

Fermi surface mapping/tomography,

Spin-resolved ARPES

Shallow core XPS

Elettra synchrotron, Apple II Quasi-Periodic undulator; variable polarization (horizontal, vertical, circular ±); flux on sample @ 10µm slits (ph./s) >2 x 1011; beam size on the sample 150x50 (HxV, µm2)

8-120 eV

VG Scienta DA30 analyzer; spin detection based on very low energy electron diffraction (VLEED) from magnetic surface oxide targets

(E/dE) 30000

T range: 15-300 K

Preparation chamber with 3 heating stages HT (RT- 2000K), WT (170K - 900K), LT (RT - 700K), ion gun, 3 evaporator ports (CF40), gas inlet leak valve, LEED+AES (Omicron SPECTALEED)

MOKE magnetometry Transversal (Hmax=600 Oe), Polar (Hmax=3000 Oe), 3D (Hmax=80 Oe); atomic resolution STM (room temperature, ETH-Z built)


XPS, UPS - Analytical Laboratory @ IOM


Conventional X-ray source (Mg Kα), He discharge lamp

Mg Ka hv: 1253.6eV; He discharge lamp (hv: 21.2eV, hv: 40.2eV)

PSP 120mm hemispherical electron energy analyser

~0.8eV for XPS, 50meV for UPS

T range:  RT-1500°C

Preparation chamber with CVD and PECVD growth facilities, UHV evaporators, LEED, sputter gun, RGA


ARPES, XPS - BACH Beamline @ Elettra Synchrotron

Soft x-ray - VUV and resonant angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, resonant photoelectron diffraction, resonant x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, fast photoemission with selectable polarization;
core levels, valence band, work function, Auger, surface and bulk band dispersion, empty states in the conduction band, magnetic remanence, strain in thin films, time-resolved spectral evolutions during surface reactions

Elettra synchrotron, Apple II undulators; variable polarization (horizontal, vertical, circular ±); beam size on the sample 350x350 (HxV, µm2); vertical size can be reduced on request; flux on sample @ 10µm slits (best resolution) (ph./s) 2x1012-6x1010

35-1650 eV

VG Scienta R3000 analyzer with slit(s) perpendicular to the scattering plane

(E/dE) 20000-5000

Many samples can be acccomodated in a 25x25mm2 area; T range: 50-1200 K (PID-controlled)

Base pressure: UHV

Both preparation and main chambers with heating stages (e-beam, direct current, PBN), ion gun (VG), 4 evaporator ports (CF40), gas inlet valve (variable leak valve), diamond file scraper, cleaver, evaporators for organic molecules, e-beam evaporators (Omicron) for metals (evaporation at low sample temperatures is also possible), LEED (OciLEED)

XAS is possible in the same chamber; quick XPS acquisition mode (300 ms per spectrum); 4 degree-of-freedom manipulator (rotation axis perpendicular to the scattering plane); possibility to measure at T>300 K; electrical insulation of the sample: possibility to apply a voltage and measure the work function; possibility to superimpose synchrotron beam to external light sources to study photoinduced phenomena


XPS - NAPP endstantion, CIRCE beamline @ ALBA Synchrotron

XPS at near ambient pressures


XPS, XPCS, CDI, Time-resolved SAXS - Coherence Applications P10 Beamline @ Petra III Synchrotron

Coherence Applications, X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (XPCS), Coherent diffractive imaging (CDI), Time-resolved SAXS


XPS - Surface Spectroscopy @ Desy NanoLab

X-ray induced Auger spectroscopy, elevated pressure energy analysis

Monochromated X-Ray source FOCUS 500, equipped with differential pumping system

Al K-alpha E =1.487 keV (monochromated)

PHOIBOS 150 2D-DLD Elevated Pressure Energy Analyzer, equipped with differential pumping system

Laser Pointer for sample positioning and alignment

Variable pressure range: 10-10mbar< P <10-4mbar; variable temperature range: 100 K < T < 1000 K (liquid N2 cooling)

Quantitative elemental analysis of surfaces and chemical analysis, flood gun to neutralize charging on non-conducting samples, ion source


XPS - P04 Beamline @ Petra III Synchrotron

Variable polarization XUV high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy

Undulator, source brilliance: 1020 ph/s/mm2/mrad2/0.1% bw/100 mA, polarization available: circular (variable linear hor./vert. in future)

Energy range 250 eV – 3 keV (design), 250 eV – 2.2 keV  (at present)

Beamline energy resolution <10 meV at 335 eV, <100 meV at 1 keV

Sample type: solid or gas phase (UHV compatible), angle of incidence light – sample: 0 to 90, spot size ON SAMPLE: 5000 μm x 2000 μm to 10 μm x10 μm  (h x v), maximum flux ON SAMPLE: > 1015 ph/s @ 1keV

Techniques available: experimental platform (6 user setups available for collaborations)


XPS - Surface Science Lab @ Laboratory for Micro- and Nanotechnology

Sample analysis with micro/spectro-scopy correlation (XPS, UPS, LEED, STM)

SPECS XR 50 M X-ray source for FOCUS 500 X-ray monochromator

Single wavelength, Al Kα, 1486.7 eV

SPECS PHOIBIOS-150 analyser

0.44 eV

4-5 degrees of freedom

50K-500K, typically 1cm2, other possibilities to be discussed


Load-lock, preparation chamber, flood gun, sputter, depth profiling, UV source, LEED

UPS and STM also available in the same system


Time resolved photoemission XPS, ARPES, XAS, XMCD - Tempo Beamline @ Soleil Synchrotron

Time resolution<50ps


RIXS, HAXPES - Galaxies Beamline @ Soleil Synchrotron



XPS, HR-ARPES, Spin-resolved PES - Cassiopee Beamline @ Soleil Synchrotron

E/ΔE> 20000


MBE chamber


Nano-XPS & ARPES, ARPES - Antares Beamline @ Soleil Synchrotron

Electronic structure determination using scanning-angle-resolved photoemission spectromicroscopy combined with local structural characterisation by means of photoelectron diffraction 

Resolution <120nm




- SPECS XR 50 M X-ray source for FOCUS 500 X-ray monochromator with Aluminium (1486.74eV) and Silver (2984 eV)

- SPECS UVS 300 UV light with monochromator with He I (21.2 eV) and He II (40.8eV)

0-1486eV with Al and 0-2900eV with Ag

SPECS PHOIBIOS-150 analyser

0.5eV with Al and 0.5meV with He I

T down to 80K, heating to 700K


Preparation chamber equipped with heating stage (e beam), sputter gun, load lock, LEED, gas inlet leak valve and 3 evaporation ports

Analysis chamber equipped with flood gun to neutralise charging on non conductive samples


PHI 5000/VersaProbe II

X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy micro-analysis of thin-films, bulk materials and prototypical devices

Depth-profiling of inorganic and organic samples

XPS imaging of heterogeneous surfaces at the 10 microns scale

Excitation source: Monochromated X-rays AlKa1

Sputtering source: Monoatomic Ar (0.25-5 keV)

Gas Cluster Ion Source (Ar cluster size 500-2500; primary energies 0.5-20 keV)

X-rays: 1486.6 eV

Multi-channel detection (128)

Energy resolution: > 0.5 eV

Chemical state mapping: > 7 µm lateral resolution at > 0.8 eV energy resolution

x, y, z (for positioning the area of interest)

θ tilt (for variable-angle XPS)

5x5 mm² <size< 60 mm diameter

Hot/cold sample plate for in-situ cooling (liquid nitrogen) or heating (< 900°C)

Routine base pressure 8x10-10 mbar, highest allowed pressure 8x10-6 mbar

4-contacts sample holders for in-situ sample biasing

UHV or inert atmosphere transfer is possible to the following tools: ScientaOmicron/NanoESCA, Nano Auger, ToF-SIMS and UHV AFM