Angle Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy

Characterisation Installation 5
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Angle Resolved Photoemission (ARPES) allows to measure directly the electronic band structure of crystalline solids. It is based on the photoelectric effect: the electron inside the solid absorbs energy and (negligible) momentum from the incoming photon and is ejected in vacuum where it is detected retrieving  information about its initial state energy, momentum and spin.  State of the art electron energy and momentum analyzers, and high energy resolution and polarization control of the exciting light are needed for resolving the fine electronic structure.   Adding efficient spin-polarization measurement to ARPES, i.e. measuring Spin Polarized-ARPES at uncompromised energy and momentum resolution will enable addressing the study of the magnetic properties of surfaces, interfaces and nanostructures, as well as the spin-orbit coupling effects that determine the spin texture of the surface bands in complex materials of interest for their potential in spintronics.

          provided at NFFA-Europe laboratories by:
          provided at Large Scale Facilities by:

ARPES, XPS - Low Energy APE Beamline @ Elettra Synchrotron

Fermi surface mapping/tomography, spin-resolved ARPES, shallow core XPS

Elettra synchrotron, Apple II Quasi-Periodic undulator; variable polarization (horizontal, vertical, circular ±); flux on sample @ 10µm slits (ph./s) >2 x 1011; beam size on the sample 150x50 (HxV, µm2)

8-120 eV

VG Scienta DA30 analyzer; spin detection based on very low energy electron diffraction (VLEED) from magnetic surface oxide targets

(E/dE)  30000

T range:  15-300 K

Preparation chamber with 3 heating stages: HT (RT- 2000K), WT (170K - 900K), LT (RT - 700K); ion gun; 3 evaporator ports (CF40); gas inlet leak valve; LEED+AES (Omicron SPECTALEED)

MOKE magnetometry: Transversal (Hmax=600 Oe), Polar (Hmax=3000 Oe), 3D (Hmax=80 Oe); atomic resolution STM (room temperature, ETH-Z built)


ARPES, XPS - BACH Beamline @ Elettra Synchrotron

Soft-x-ray-VUV and resonant angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, resonant photoelectron diffraction, resonant x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, fast photoemission with selectable polarization;
core levels, valence band, work function, Auger, surface and bulk band dispersion, empty states in the conduction band, magnetic remanence, strain in thin films, time-resolved spectral evolutions during surface reactions

Elettra synchrotron, Apple II undulators; variable polarization (horizontal, vertical, circular ±); beam size on the sample 350x350 (HxV, µm2); vertical size can be reduced on request; flux on sample @ 10µm slits (best resolution) (ph./s) 2 x 1012 -6 x 1010

35-1650 eV

VG Scienta R3000 analyzer with slit(s) perpendicular to the scattering plane

(E/dE) 20000-5000

Many samples can be accomodated in a 25x25 mm2 area; T range: 50-1200 K (PID-controlled)

Base pressure: UHV

Both preparation and main chambers with heating stages (e-beam, direct current, PBN), ion gun (VG), 4 evaporator ports (CF40), gas inlet valve (variable leak valve), diamond file scraper, cleaver; evaporators for organic molecules; e-beam evaporators (Omicron) for metals (evaporation at low sample temperatures is also possible); LEED (OciLEED)

XAS is possible in the same chamber; quick XPS acquisition mode (300 ms per spectrum); 4 degree-of-freedom manipulator (rotation axis perpendicular to the scattering plane); possibility to measure at T>300 K; electrical Insulation of the sample: possibility to apply a voltage and measure the work function; possibility to superimpose synchrotron beam to external light sources to study photoinduced phenomena


ARPES, RIXS - ADRESS Beamline @ Swiss Light Source Synchrotron

Soft-X-ray radiation, Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) and ARPES

Fixed-gap undulator, circular and 0-180o variable linear polarization, flux on sample up to 1013 ph/s/0.01%BW/400 mA, spot size 10x74 µm2 (ARPES); 4x52 µm2 (RIXS)

300 - 1600 eV

PHOIBIOS-150 analyser, constant angular dispersion through the whole operative energy range

Better than 0.07o at 1 keV; up to 33000 (E/ΔE, 1 keV)

CARVING manipulator

Temperatures down to 10.5 K


Transfer chamber equipped with LEED, load-lock, low-T cleavage, preparation chamber: gas exposure, ion bombardment, heating up to 1000oC, and thin film deposition

RIXS endstation available


HRPES, SARPES - SIS Beamline @ Swiss Light Source Synchrotron

The Surface and Interface Spectroscopy (SIS) beamline provides a state-of-the-art experimental set-up to study the electronic band structure of novel complex materials by spin- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopies. The beamline has been designed for the energy range from 10 to 800 eV with high flux, high resolution, variable polarization, and low high-harmonic contamination

EM crossed field undulator, linear horizontal (10 - 800 eV),  linear vertical (100 - 800 eV), circular left/right (50-800 eV) , flux at 200 eV  2x1013 ph/s/0.1%BW/0.4A, spot size on sample at 200 eV 50μm x 100μm

10 - 800 eV

VG-SCIENTA R4000 photoelectron spectrometer for a total angular acceptance of 30 degrees

Up to 10000 (E/ΔE)

CARVING manipulator

Temperatures down to 10 K and up to 400 K, sample dimensions: diameter < 10mm, thickness ~0.1 - 3mm


In-situ cleaving, sample preparation and characterization chamber: ion sputtering, annealing (300K-1000K), LEED

Spin- and angle- resolved photoemission spectroscopy endstation available


ARPES, XPD - PEARL Beamline @ Swiss Light Source Synchrotron

The PEARL (Photoemission and atomic resolution laboratory) beamline is dedicated to the structural characterisation of local bonding geometry of molecular adsorbates on metal or semiconductor surfaces, of nanostructured surfaces, and of surfaces of complex materials. It is a soft X-ray beamline with an angle-resolved photoelectron spectrometer for angle-scanned and photon energy-scanned X-ray photoelectron diffraction (XPD)

Bending magnet, linear horizontal, partial circular left/right, flux on sample at 1 keV: 2x1011ph/s, spot size: 170μm H x 73μm V, FWHM,  1mm x1mm

60 - 2000 eV

Scienta EW4000 detector

Up to 7000 at 400 eV (E/ΔE)

6-axis Carving manipulator

Temperatures down to 30K, heating to 650 K


In-situ sample preparation, cooling-heating, LEED, load-loack

STM at temperature of 4K


Time resolved photoemission XPS, ARPES, XAS, XMCD - Tempo Beamline @ Soleil Synchrotron

Time resolution<50ps


XPS, HR-ARPES, Spin-resolved PES - Cassiopee Beamline @ Soleil Synchrotron

UHV, MBE chamber, E/ΔE> 20000


Nano-XPS & ARPES, ARPES - Antares Beamline @ Soleil Synchrotron

Resolution <120nm