XRD
X-Ray Diffraction

Characterisation Installation 4
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XRD provides non-destructive information on the structural order of a material.

When the X-ray wavelength is of the order of the crystal lattice spacing, at large scattering angles XRD permits to identify different crystal phases in a sample and to quantify lattice distances and crystalline volume fractions.

At low angles of incidence, the X-rays are reflected at the surface or interface, and from the resulting X-ray reflectometry data the surface roughness of a single crystal and the thickness of a deposition layer can be obtained.

At an angle of incidence below the critical angle XRD is highly surface sensitive.

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          provided at NFFA-Europe laboratories by:
France
Italy
France
Spain
Greece
Spain
Spain
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          provided at Large Scale Facilities by:
Spain
Germany
Switzerland
France
UAB
Spain

Powder X-ray diffractometer “XPert Powder”

Powder X-ray diffraction

X-ray tube, Cu anode

Cu-Kalfa radiation (1.5419 Å)

PIXcel1D

Vertical goniometer theta-theta

Holders and platforms for powders (20 mg – 2 g), for small pieces, for oxygen or moisture sensitive samples

Measurements at room temperature or at non-ambient temperature (from -190°C to 450°C), at ambient or reduced pressure, in special atmospheres

CEA-LETI
France

Hibrix

X-ray diffraction (phase, stress, texture analysis) of thin films and multilayers materials

X-ray reflectivity (thickness, electronic density, roughness) of thin films and mutilayers

X-ray fluorescence (chemical analysis)

Non ambient condition (heating up to 1100°C under different atmospheres)

X-ray microsource (50 to 150 micrometers spot size) 50 W with parallel and focusing primary optics (mirrors)

Copper source (8 keV)

2D detector (60x60 mm², curved detector (120° aperture / radius 250 mm), fluorescence detector and scintillator

Kα1-2 spectral lines

Spot size at sample position (50 to 150 ums)

200 eV for fluorescence

Four circles diffractometers with high angular resolution (0.001°), x,y, (50 mm), z (15 mm) sample stage

100 mm substrate size or small coupons

In situ (temperature) measurements up to 1100°C under primary vacuum or under air, nitrogen, argon, helium atmosphere (1 bar)

ICN2
Spain

XRD

X-ray diffraction of nanopowder or thin film/multilayer materials, X-ray Reflectivity, Texture and Stress analysis, Epitaxial films, Grazing incidence, Non-ambient conditions.

Panalytical X’Pert Pro MPD and MPD diffractometers. Conventional Cu or Co tube. Thin film diffractometer is 4-angle goniometer with low/high resolution optics (2x and 4x Ge(220) crystal monochromators). 

PIXCel detector (2D solid state detector 256x256 pixels works as 1D detector). Ideal for fast reciprocal space mapping (typical 30 min-1h).

From a few mm2 up to 3” diameter flat samples.

DHS 1100 Anton Paar hot-stage (RT up to 1000°C), with controlled atmosphere (N2, O2 gas flows, fast gas mixing, wet/dry atmosphere). Compatible with all measurements XRD, texture, XRR, reciprocal space mapping.

Fast acquisition for phase transformation kinetics (single peak scan in 2-4 sec). High temperature chamber adapted for in-situ measurements with applied voltage/temperature/controlled atmosphere. In-plane diffraction geometry: ideal for exploring ultrathin films of a few nm.

CEA-LETI
France

Smartlab Rigaku

X-ray diffraction (phase, stress, texture analysis, in plane analysis) of polycristalline and epitaxial thin films and multilayers materials

X-ray reflectivity (thickness, electronic density, roughness) of thin films and mutilayers

X-ray fluorescence (chemical analysis) and Grazing incidence fluorescence (sub-nm in depth chemical profile)

U-SAXS with Bonse-Hart optics

Non ambient condition (heating up to 1100°C under different atmospheres)

Rotating anode X-ray sources Cu and Mo (9 kW) with parallel and focusing optics

Copper source (8 keV) and molybdenum source (17 keV)

2D detector (Pilatus 100K), linear detector (10° aperture / radius 250 mm), fluorescence detector and scintillator

Kα1-2 spectral lines

Kα1 spectral line with Johansson configuration (Bragg Brentano)

HR-XRD : Ge(220)x2; Ge(220)x4;, Ge(400)x2; Ge(400)x4;

Spot size at sample position (200 microns to few mm²)

200 eV for fluorescence

Five circles diffractometers with high angular resolution (0.001°), x,y, (50 mm), z (15 mm) sample stage

In plane sample alignment (double Rx, Ry rotation stage)

100 mm substrate size or small coupons

In situ (temperature) measurements up to 1100°C under primary vacuum or under air, nitrogen, argon, helium atmosphere (1 bar)

PSI
Switzerland

XRD - MS Beamline @ Swiss Light Source Synchrotron

The Material Science (MS) beamline serves two endstations for surface diffraction and powder diffraction

Short-period (14 mm) in-vacuum, cryogenically cooled, permanent magnet undulator, flux at 10eV: 2.5x1013 ph/s/0.4 A, focused spot size 130µm x 40µm (1:1 focusing)

5 - 38 keV

PILATUS II novel photon-counting 2-D pixel detector, 486 x 195 pixels, each pixel subtending 0.0086o x 0.0086o, high SNR due to its zero electronic background noise, excellent point spread function; 2+3-circle surface diffractometer from Micro-Controle Newport

Horizontal or vertical sample positioning, hexapod for sample positioning and aligning

UHV, cryo-chamber

Choice of filters

Powder diffraction endstation is also available

DESY
Germany

Reflectometer

Characterization of surfaces, interfaces and coatings

Lab based Mo source, Mo_Kα

Point detector

Strip detector (Mythen)

Spot size: 12x0.3 mm2 (HxV)

Divergence: 0.4 mrad (V)

x,y,z, translation

Sample rotations for surface alignment in two directions

Mass spectrometer and flux monitors inside mobile X-ray environments

Mountable mobile X-ray environments for 1) high pressure, 2) catalysis, 3) electro-chemistry

Gas dosing inside mountable mobile X-ray environments permitting in-situ catalytic or EC experiments

DESY
Germany

Six-circle Diffractometer

Full reciprocal space analysis

Lab based Cu source, Cu_Kα

Point detector

Strip detector (Mythen)

Spot size: 0.25 x 0.25 mm2 (HxV)

Divergence: 5 x 5 mrad² (HxV)

x,y,z, translation

Angular freedom of six-circle diffractometer geometry

Mass spectrometer and flux monitors inside mobile X-ray environments

Mountable mobile X-ray environments for 1) high pressure, 2) catalysis, 3) electro-chemistry

Gas dosing inside mountable mobile X-ray environments permitting in-situ catalytic or EC experiments

CNR-IOM
Italy

Four-circle X-ray diffractometer PanalyticalX'pert

Analysis of a wide range of materials, from micrometer powders to thin films and/or nano-engineered heterostructures

Cu Kα (1.5405 Å)

Interchangeable fixed slits and one Soller slit

Cu Kα (1.5405 Å)

Sealed proportional counter

Fixed slit plus programmable receiving slit

Graphite analyser

Open Eulerian cradle:

- incidence angle ± 92˚

- azimuth angle 2 x 360˚

- x,y in plane translation: 100 x 100 mm

- z vertical translation minimum step 1 µm