XRD provides non-destructive information on the structural order of a material.
When the X-ray wavelength is of the order of the crystal lattice spacing, at large scattering angles XRD permits to identify different crystal phases in a sample and to quantify lattice distances and crystalline volume fractions.
At low angles of incidence, the X-rays are reflected at the surface or interface, and from the resulting X-ray reflectometry data the surface roughness of a single crystal and the thickness of a deposition layer can be obtained.
At an angle of incidence below the critical angle XRD is highly surface sensitive.
X-ray diffraction of nanopowder or thin film/multilayer materials. X-ray Reflectivity. Texture and Stress analysis. Epitaxial films. Grazing incidence. Non-ambient conditions.
Panalytical X’Pert Pro MPD and MPD diffractometers. Conventional Cu or Co tube. Thin film diffractometer is 4-angle goniometer with low/high resolution optics (2x and 4x Ge(220) crystal monochromators).
PIXCel detector (2D solid state detector 256x256 pixels works as 1D detector). Ideal for fast reciprocal space mapping (typical 30 min-1h).
DHS 1100 Anton Paar hot-stage (RT up to 1000°C), with controlled atmosphere (N2, O2 gas flows, fast gas mixing, wet/dry atmosphere). Compatible with all measurements XRD, texture, XRR, reciprocal space mapping.
XRD - MS Beamline @ Swiss Light Source Synchrotron
The Material Science (MS) beamline serves two endstations for surface diffraction and powder diffraction
Short-period (14 mm) in-vacuum, cryogenically cooled, permanent magnet undulator, flux at 10eV: 2.5x1013 ph/s/0.4 A, focused spot size 130µm x 40µm (1:1 focusing)
PILATUS II novel photon-counting 2-D pixel detector, 486 x 195 pixels, each pixel subtending 0.0086o x 0.0086o, high SNR due to its zero electronic background noise, excellent point spread function; 2+3-circle surface diffractometer from Micro-Controle Newport